In middle school science, students design and conduct scientific investigations and construct scientific explanations based on evidence and observations. Students make measurements using metric units and organize their data. 6th graders learn about fundamental concepts in astronomy, physics, mineralogy such as the rock cycle: processes that shape Earth’s surface, fossils, natural resources, and the Earth in space. In 7th grade science, physics continues with the addition of chemistry and biology. Students learn about fundamental concepts in life science such as human physiology, combustion (metabolism), and atmospheric circulation, weather and climate. In 8th grade science, students learn about fundamental concepts in physics fluid dynamics and the mechanical dynamics of the human body. Throughout all of middle school, students also learn about the nature of science as a human endeavor.